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Common eye problems and their symptoms

Eye problems can be considered a global issue. Every year, thousands of people lose their vision to preventable causes.

Either the issues do not get diagnosed and treated in time, or people lack resources for to seek treatment. 

Whereas the latter is a more complex socio-economic issue, the former can certainly be addressed to some extent by making people aware of the common eye problems and their symptoms so that they timely consult their Eye Specialist in Karachi and seek treatment for the eye and vision problem. 

Some of the common eye problems that plague the world include:

Age-related macular degeneration

Macula is the part in retina that helps in ensuring a crisp central vision. We make use of central vision for most activities throughout the day, especially those that require one to focus on object right in front of them, like reading, driving, watching television, using the telephone etc. 

However, due to age, this vision can be compromised, in a condition known as age-related macular degeneration. There are two types of AMD, wet and dry. 

In wet AMD, new blood vessels form under the macula, that then leak fluid into the eye. This then causes the image formation to turn wavy and blurry. Some people might also experience blind spots that then cause the loss of central vision. 

The more common form of AMD is dry age-related macular degeneration. In it, protein deposits a top of the eye damage the functionality of the retina. Since it is gradual process, people may experience the symptoms setting in over a period of time. The end result of dry AMD is also loss of central vision. 

Symptoms of AMD include blurring central vision, appearance of dark spots in it, seeing straight lines as wavy, hallucination in the dark, and more rarely, color distinction issues. 


Cataract is a condition in which the lens of the eye becomes cloudy. It then can eventually impair the vision to an extent whereby one becomes blind. Cataracts can develop in either or both eyes. While it can occur at any age –some children are even born with this issue –it is more common amongst the older population. 

Symptoms of cataracts include blurry vision, issues with color distinction, problems seeing finer things in dim light, problems with night vision, sensitivity to bright lights, refractive error that keep changing. 

Refractive errors

Perhaps the most pervasive form of eye problems are the refractive errors. Just as they are prevalent, their antidote is also rather easy. 

Essentially, in refractive errors, lens does focus the light properly, due to which people either can see only objects that are close to them, short sightedness, or those that are far away, long sightedness. A small subset has both issues. 

The symptoms of refractive errors are blurring vision, inability to see objects nearby or at a distance, squinting eyes in attempts to focus the vision etc. 

The refractive errors can easily be addressed by using glasses, that help in focusing the light properly. Conversely, people may also use lenses, or get vision correction surgery. 


Glaucoma occurs due to the buildup of high-pressure fluid inside of the eye. It then causes the optic nerve, which connects the eye to the brain, to sustain damage. Consequently, vision gets compromised.

There are two types of glaucoma, open angel, and closed angle. The former sets in over a period of time, whereas the latter occurs suddenly. In either scenario, the worst-case is blindness. 

Symptoms of glaucoma include blurred and compromised vision, eye pain or feeling as if there is pressure mounting in the eye(s), inability to see peripheral objects, digestive problems like nausea and vomiting, headaches etc. 

If you are experiencing these symptoms, you must seek urgent help from an eye doctor like Dr. Javed Ul Hassan Chattha Eye Specialist. The doctor will then explore treatment options specific to your symptoms.  

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